A radioactive source that is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory control or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen, or otherwise transferred without proper authorization, is considered an orphan source. Orphan sources are usually gathered as scrap metal because of their heavy metallic containers. Melting an orphan source with scrap metal produces contaminated recycled metal and waste; the consequences will be extremely serious for humans and the environment, affecting the economy and social stability. In this paper, we propose and develop an Internet of Radiation Sensor System (Io
RSS) to detect radioactive sources out of regulatory control in scrap metal recycling and production facilities. It is a complete Io
T system consisting of a network of wirelessly connected radiometric devices that optimizes the detection, localization, and identification of radioactive sources by integrating data from multiple portable radiation detectors. The proposed Io
RSS system creates a robust and flexible network architecture along with advanced data fusion algorithms that combine information from many detectors. The Io
RSS system provides advanced search and monitoring capabilities in a large coverage area and in difficult operational environments.

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Radiation source security, in particular, and nuclear power security, in general, are currently the main concerns of the international community1. In recent years, radiation and nuclear technologies have been deployed rapidly and broadly in various industrial and economic sectors and society, which has brought various practical benefits. However, the management, transportation, storage, and usage of radiation sources are complicated by many challenges. In fact, there have been many radiation sources lost, resulting in significant impacts on economic and social stability2. A radioactive source that is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory control or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or otherwise transferred without proper authorization, is called an orphan source3. Orphan sources have led to accidents with serious, even fatal, consequences as a result of the exposure of individuals to radiation4.

The melting of an orphan source with scrap metal or its rupturing, when mixed with scrap metal, has also resulted in contaminated recycled metal and wastes4. If this happens, costly cleanup operations may be necessary. If the contaminated material is not detected at the metal recycling and production facility, workers may be exposed to radiation, and radionuclides may become incorporated into various finished products and wastes, which, in turn, may lead to exposure to users of these products. Concern over accidents involving orphan sources, including those that have occurred in the metal recycling and production industries, led to the establishment of an international undertaking Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (Code of Conduct)5. In the general principles section of the Code, it is also stated that each country must have technical systems in place to respond quickly with the goal of controlling stolen and abandoned radioactive sources and eliminating or minimizing their consequences. Nevertheless, the possibility of orphan sources being present in scrap metal remains6. Lost radioactive sources are usually sealed sources, made of metal rods and pellets, and their containers are also metal. Therefore, when the radioactive source is lost, it will usually be sold to a steel scrap collector for recycling2,6,7,8. This is the reason why all countries are very interested in controlling radioactive sources in scrap metal recycling facilities. The IAEA has technical guidelines for dealing with this in its document1 “Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries” (Specific Safety Guide, No. SSG-17, Vienna, 2012). Radioactive and nuclear materials can constitute a threat to public health and homeland security in the form of threats of terrorism, orphan sources, nuclear accidents, or radioactive contamination9. As radiation detectors installed at major ports of entry are a key component of the overall strategy to protect countries from nuclear terrorism10. In Vietnam, there are also regulations with the responsibility for detecting radioactive sources out of regulatory control for scrap metal recycling and production facilities7.

With the advancement of science and technology, especially in the field of nuclear detection technologies, many specialized technologies and equipment have been developed to ensure the safety and security of radioactive sources such as radiation portal monitors (RPMs), personal radiation detectors (PRDs), hand-held radioisotope identification devices (RIIDs), mobile and transportable detectors, radiographic imaging systems employ x-rays or gamma rays11. These devices operate individually, have high operating and maintenance costs, and are not suitable for small and medium-sized scrap metal recycling facilities. Another challenge is that when orphan sources are hidden in scrap metal that shields their activity from traditional detectors in the portals that scan incoming trucks12.

The detection of radioactive material in waste is of paramount importance for the protection of the environment12. In this report, we present the proposal and development of an Internet of Radiation Sensor System (Io
RSS) to enhance the use of nuclear detection systems to detect nuclear and other radioactive materials out of regulatory control at points of entry/exit and other trade locations of scrap metal recycling and production facilities. To maximize the ability to detect, identify, locate, and respond to nuclear radiation incidents, we propose and apply advances in computing, communications, algorithm development, software tools, and hardware in an integrated network of distributed sensors13,14,15,16 and Lo
Ra17,18 wireless communications that contribute to enhanced radiological and nuclear detection capability and response activities. The implementation of the Io
RSS has facilitated improved situational awareness and better capabilities to detect, identify, locate, and respond to incidents by integrating data from multiple fixed and mobile radiation detection devices across distributed detectors and apply advanced data processing algorithms.

The main contributions and novelty of the paper are given below.

Propose an Internet of Radiation Sensor System (Io
RSS) to detect radioactive sources out of regulatory control in scrap iron and steel recycling facilities. The Io
T-based Io
RSS system includes a network of wirelessly connected stationary and mobile devices, data processing algorithm and software, monitoring and control servers, web-based and mobile applications, and procedures of radiation incident detection and response plan. The Io
RSS system provides a more robust detection capability, more quickly and accurately with high confidence in the presence, location, and type of radioactive material than a group of individual detectors.

Design and comprehensive field tests of a wireless, compact and robust gamma-sensitive detector for gamma and neutron detection compatible with stationary and mobile devices that are compatible and affordable for installation in several stations or quickly moving to different areas of the scrap yard to scan scrap metal in recycling and production facilities (operation at high temperature and intense vibrations and mechanical shocks) prior to fusion. The design of the proposed Io
RSS is fully modularized; therefore, it can be easily customized not only for detectors and other hardware but also for the Io
T network and protocol. This makes the system more flexible and feasible.

Provide radiation detection, identification, warning, and incident response plan. These processes are designed, developed, and integrated into the Io
RSS system. In these processes, the stationary device can continuously measure gamma-ray and sending the measurement to the cloud/server. The application server performs data analysis algorithms on the received data. In case the measured value exceeds a predefined threshold, the application server will generate a primary warning so that users can use the mobile device to confirm the existence of the radiation source, identify the type of radiation, the type of radioisotope and the exact location of the radiation source. Based on the confirmed radiation dose rate compared to the level of preconfigured thresholds, the Io
RSS system will activate an corresponding incident response to the level of danger of the detected radiation.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. “literature review” section highlights the state-of-the-art literature review on aspects of the Io
T approach for radiation detection and monitoring, searching and locating lost radioactive sources, and radioactive and nuclear material detectors. The detailed proposal for an Io
T-based radiation sensor system (Io
RSS), including the system architecture and hardware design, is described in “system architecture and hardware design for an Io
T-based radiation sensor system (Io
RSS)” section. The processes of radiation detection, identification, warning, and response to radiation incident are described in “Io
RSS operation protocols” section. In “test results and analysis” section, we present the results of extensive field tests in scrap metal recycling and production facilities to evaluate the performance of the proposal. The experimental setup and results findings are also extensively analyzed and discussed in this section. Finally, our conclusions and future work are described in “conclusions and future work” section.

huets.edu.vn Boasting at the Frontier of IIo

Now, thanks to scientists and technologists, the frontiers of operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) knowledge has been pushed back every day. Always at the spotlight of the Io
T community, huets.edu.vn has become very skilled at harnessing the Io
T technology in integrating OT and IT, especially in the industrial environment, i.e. IIo
T where huets.edu.vn has helped expedite data gathering, reporting, and regulatory compliance among components over the IIo
T; enabling cost reduction, energy saving and maintenance prediction by utilizing big data and analytics over the IIo
T to provide new insights to drive better commercial decisions; and facilitating quick actions to improve response to demand spikes by offering visualized data over the IIo
T for alert notification.


Edge Computing for Smart Energy

Proudly, huets.edu.vn’s r
BOX and ICO series can be installed as a power nod or gateway, securely utilizing sensors and meters, leveraging digital controls and analytics, better monitoring and managing the flow of energy and information. For smart grid, smart solar and smart wind situated upon disturbed points and centralized management, Such series products can constitute an intelligent gateway, empowering edge computing solutions with a large data storage and flexible design, thus ensuring to fulfill various applications on each end user side, at the periphery of the network, or as close to the originating source as possible

Intelligent Communication Gateway

Adding values to the communication among connected nodes, huets.edu.vn’s r
BOX and ICO series plays a significant role as an I/O communication gateway, utilizing its own propriety software AXView to bridge nodes over the IIo
T more efficiently and effectively by facilitating data transfer from edge devices to remote servers. huets.edu.vn’s intelligent gateway can communicate up to network and software management level, and down to sensors and meters – via I/O communication protocols such as Fieldbus, Modbus, Profibus, etc. over WLAN and WWAN networking – hence enhancing the machine-to-machine communication, driving operational performance and reducing cost and time for many energy sectors such as natural energy, electrical grid, oil and gas. With huets.edu.vn’s intelligent communication gateway, the way connected nodes interact with each other has further reflexed and realized what the Io
T was envisioned to do – the integration of the physical world and the digital word, i.e. cyber- physical integration.

Remote Monitoring at Gateway and on Cloud

Finally, remote monitoring and, more importantly, remote access have allowed machine builders to reduce costs from day one throughout the entire machine deployment – thanks to the offsite problem debugging, software updates, device maintenance, user-profile creation, and more. In this regard, huets.edu.vn has worked with prominent industrial leaders, such as Microsoft and Intel, building up numerous remote monitoring and management systems in smart energy, roadside service, electrical vehicle charging station, among other applications.

Cost-Effective Integrated Gateway Solution

In conclusion, huets.edu.vn’s industrial gateway ICO100-839 , ICO300 , ICO300-83B and r
BOX510 , r
T gateway discussed above. Furthermore, the design of rich I/O communication, wireless connectivity, flexible expansion, and software remote monitoring are comprehensively providing customers a friendly, cost-effective and reliable solution, helping energy organizations optimize device performance, ensure uptime of assets, reduce outages and costs (especially business operation and maintenance costs), and enable businesses and consumers to better manage their own energy usage to meet their individual needs

T Remote Monitoring Software for Solar Energy

In view of the growing need to commercialize solar energy, huets.edu.vn has deployed ICO300, its embedded system, and AXView, its own proprietary software, to form the brain of an intelligent gateway. Shown in Diagram below is the architecture of a solution for a solar energy station, including the front end at a solar station, an huets.edu.vn’s intelligent controlling unit in the middle (including hardware and software), and a cloud at the far end.

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At the front end, ambient solar panels are grouped together as a solar PV array before connected to PV inverters which then convert the variable direct current (DC) output of a solar PV array into the alternating current (AC) that can be fed into commercial electrical grid or used by a local network. Through RS-485 interface, the ICO300 gateway is connected to PV inverters via Modbus protocol, while the AXView on the brain of a solar station is collecting data, such as voltage, current, sunlight intensity, temperature and humidity, which then is sent to the Microsoft Azure cloud at the far end via 3G or Wi-Fi for display or analytics.